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Tips on Citing: APA Citations

Correct Citing

Additonal Resources

When to Cite

  • Anything that is printed, spoken or sung (except facts or common knowledge)
  • Unusual phrase borrowed from a speaker or writer
  • Photos, drawings, charts, graphs, etc.
  • Someone else's unpublished research findings

APA Style

Examples of APA Citations

Quoting author(s) directly:

“It is possible that cardiovascular risk factors are associated with aortic stenosis purely because of an association between aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease. Thus, when defining risk factors for aortic stenosis, it is essential to control for atherosclerosis” (Ortlepp, Schmitz, Bozoglu, Hanrath, Hoffmann, 2003, p. 1021).

Citing a reference in the text of paper:

Ortlepp, Schmitz, Bozoglu, Hanrath, and Hoffmann (2003) found that atherosclerosis must be controlled when defining risk factors for aortic stenosis.

Proper citation in bibliography:

Ortlepp, J. R., Schmitz, F., Bozoglu, T., Hanrath, P., & Hoffmann, R. (2003). Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with aortic stenosis predict prevalence of coronary artery disease but not of aortic stenosis: an angiographic pair matched case-control study. Heart, 89(9), 1019-1022.

Citing an Online Journal Article (DOI Assigned):

Stulz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 482-488. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482

Citing an Online Journal Article (No DOI Assigned):

Sillick, T.J., & Scjhutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. 

Citing a reference found on the Internet:

plagiarism. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.Retrieved August 10, 2010, from

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6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

  1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning.
  2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card.
  3. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
  4. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.
  5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.
  6. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.

Taken from the Purdue Online Writing Lab on Paraphrasing